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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

1 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
1.04 Operating software for decoders (due to various versions in the field, sometimes referred to as 1.0X)
24-hr channel A channel which broadcasts 24 hours per day, 7 days a week
720p One of the two high definition (HD) TV formats used. The number 720p signifies a pixel resolution of 1280 horizontal pixels by 720 vertical pixels scanned progressively (lines scanned in sequence). Referring to the same resolution as 720p, 720i indicates interlaced scanning
1080p One of the two high definition (HD) TV formats used. The number 1080p signifies a pixel resolution of 1920 horizontal pixels by 1080 vertical pixels scanned progressively (lines scanned in sequence). This is the highest definition currently available. Referring to the same resolution as 1080p, 1080i indicates interlaced scanning
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line: a standard used in broadband internet that allows a high data rate signal (6 megabits per second or higher). See also DSL
ARs Audience Ratings, i.e. how many people are watching
AV Audio Visual or Audio Video
Aerial Device designed to receive the radio waves broadcast by television stations
Analogue TV Analogue television encodes television picture and sound information and transmits it as an analogue signal.  This signal is received via an aerial.  Analogue technology has been used in South Africa for the past 33 years to transmit conventional TV signals to consumers, e.g. SABC and e.tv channels are analogue, while DStv is digital
Animation The technique of making drawings appear to move in motion pictures or computer graphics.  
Anime Animation that originates in Japan.  The Animax Channel on DStv is an anime channel
Antenna Device designed to receive the radio waves broadcast by television stations
Aspect Ratio The relationship between the width and the height of a television screen that defines its shape. A standard TV set has an aspect ratio of 4:3, so if it is 32cm high it will be 24cm wide.  A 16:9 widescreen 32-inch TV is closer to a movie screen than a traditional TV, and would be 28 inches wide and 16 inches tall.  All TV’s that are labelled “HD Ready” having an aspect ratio of 16:9
Audience Is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art, literature, theatre, television or music in any medium 
Audio Description A spoken commentary that describes what is happening on screen, particularly useful for visually impaired viewers. The commentary fits in between dialogue and describes action sequences, facial expressions, costume, scenery and so on
Autotune DStv’s remote control allows you to set an ‘autotune’ command.  The decoder will automatically switch to the channel or programme requested from another channel  
BAT  Bouquet Association Table; this is to define a group of services, usually belonging to a single provider. The Irdeto Access BAT extensions allow the operator to define preferred Set Top Box channel numbers for all services in a bouquet
BCCSA Broadcasting Complaints Commission of South Africa: A television and radio broadcasting industry body responsible for self-regulation of its member stations. It is responsible for making sure that stations or channels adhere to a specific code of conduct, and if they deviate, the station concerned can face penalties imposed by the BCCSA
Backhaul  Also called contribution services, backhaul refers to capacity used to consolidate programming from various locations and assemble them in one central location for the final programming product; the final outbound channel would be considered distribution.  Can apply to satellite newsgathering or programme syndication services; provide broadcasters with a dedicated transmission pipeline for the full time programming segments
Bandwidth The amount of spectrum a communication channel (analogue or digital) uses, measured in hertz (Hz) in the analogue domain and in megabits per second (mb/s) in the digital domain
Beam A satellite transmission pattern.  It may be wide, narrow or spot.  This affects the satellite’s footprint
Blackout A particular programming service may not be available in certain areas of the country or continent, usually because of contractual agreements
Blu-Ray A new standard of disc, the same physical size as a DVD but capable of storing up to six times more data. DVDs cannot store high definition films because they are not large enough, whereas a blu-ray disc has enough space to store the film in its full glory along with any special extras
Bouquet Selection of general and thematic TV channels that are offered as a package to subscribers.  DStv offers a number of bouquets, e.g. Premium, Compact, Select, EasyView & Specialist
Broadcasting Using radio waves to distribute radio or TV programs, which are available for reception by the general public
CDV Compressed Digital Video.  A compression technique used in satellite broadcast systems that reduce the amount of bandwidth needed to transmit video.
CRM Customer Relationship Management
CRT Cathode Ray Tube. Display screens used in TV sets and computer monitors that use a Cathode Ray Tube, which is also called a "picture tube." Cathode Ray Tubes were found in all electronic television sets up until the invention of the less bulky LCD screens
CSR Contact Centre Representative
Catch-up TV Service that makes television programmes available for on-demand consumption within a specified period following their real-time broadcast (see DStv on Demand)
Channel A television channel is made up of a compilation of video programmes.  Most channels on the DStv platform are produced by international content providers and DStv assembles them into the various bouquets.
Channel Grid see DStv Channel Grid
Churn Term used to describe subscribers cancelling their subscriptions; usually reported as a percentage of total subscribers who disconnect or are disconnected from our service
Closed Captioning Service allowing persons with hearing disabilities to read dialogue or the audio portion of a video, film, or other presentation, on the TV screen
Command Centre MultiChoice Africa monitoring centre where all channel monitoring takes place. Command Centre monitors incidents of a technical nature (e.g. no picture, poor sound quality, etc), and not content issues (e.g. violence, nudity, etc)
Commercial subscribers Subscription to the Pay TV service made by offices, hotels, pubs & clubs, hospitals etc.  Not from a private dwelling
Compression Term that refers to the reduction of the size of digital data files by removing redundant and/or non-critical information ("data" being the elements of video, audio and other "information"). DTV would not be possible without compression
Connections, Analogue Analogue connections are the traditional method for connecting electronic equipment such as TVs and DVD players together. They are not suitable for high definition television because they cannot carry enough data, and can reduce picture quality. All new TVs continue to have a range of analogue connections at the rear alongside the newer digital connections, so if you have older equipment - such as a VHS video recorder - you will still be able to connect it to your brand new TV
Connections, Digital Digital connections are the best way to connect your electronic equipment together. They are perfect for high definition TV because they can carry the huge amounts of data required for high picture and sound quality. The best option for high definition is High-Definition Multimedia Interface or HDMI, and an "HD Ready" TV will almost certainly have one of these sockets at the back.  HDMI can carry high-definition television and sound in one cable, making it the best way to connect HD equipment to your TV
Contact Centre  Term used to refer to call centres, e.g. MultiChoice contact centres
Coverage The number of households that can receive digital television services.  To receive satellite successfully, your receiving dish needs to have a clear view of the satellite which is situated in a fixed position in the sky. In some cases local conditions can make this more difficult (for example, trees, buildings or other obstructions might block your line-of-sight to the satellite)
Cropping When viewing widescreen format on an analogue TV, the picture is cropped — i.e., black bars appear above, below, and on either side of the picture. This is done to maintain the original aspect ratio of the original picture source
DBS Direct Broadcast Satellite; a service that uses satellite to broadcast multiple channels of television programming directly to small dish antennas
DCC Decoder Care Contract
DOG Digital on-screen Graphic: Digital on-screen graphic - a channel identification logo, usually seen in the top left-hand corner of the TV screen
DRM Digital Rights Management.   DRM acts as copy-protection software & provides a method to ensure that copyright of content is not infringed
DSD Digital Satellite Decoder (see also Decoder)
DSL Digital Subscriber Line: a technology that allows higher bandwidth connections and transmissions over standard copper phone lines (see ADSL)
DSO Digital Switchover is the process of switching over a country’s current analogue television broadcasting system to digital.  People need to adapt or upgrade their televisions and recording equipment to receive digital TV before the analogue signal is switched off in their area.  A set top box will also be required to receive the digital signal (see STB)
DStv A content product brand owned by Multichoice.  See also Digital Satellite TV
DTH Direct-to-Home
DTT Digital Terrestrial TV is digital TV received via a standard aerial.  DTT offers better picture and audio quality, and enables more channels to be available as compared to analogue transmission
 DTV Digital TV is an advanced broadcasting technology that uses radio frequency (RF) to transmit computer code and display it as pictures and sound. DTV is the umbrella term encompassing HDTV and several other applications, including SDTV, data casting, multicasting and interactivity
DVB-H Digital Video Broadcast-Handheld.  DStv Mobile is using the DVB-H technology to make DStv channels available on a mobile handheld device
DVD Digital Versatile Disc, or Digital Video Disc - DVDs give better picture and sound quality than video cassettes, and can store more than CDs. They can be used in DVD players and recorders and also in computers, though there are different, often incompatible formats. Blu-Ray Discs are a new type of storage disc which are slowly replacing DVDs because they are large enough for high definition films
Decoder A device or program that translates encoded or encrypted data into its original format — i.e., it decodes the data. (See also STB)
Data casting Also known as "enhanced TV," this is digital programming that provides additional features to viewers (with program material or non-program-related resources) such as the ability to download data (video, audio, text, graphics, maps, services, etc.) to specially equipped computers, cache boxes, set top boxes, or digital TV receivers
Delay The time it takes for a signal to travel from a transmitting earth station, through space, to a satellite and back: this time is calculated to be about 300 milliseconds (ms)
Demographics Audience composition base on various socioeconomic characteristics such as age, sex, income, education, household size, occupation, etc.
Deutshce Welle German public news and information channel
Digital Digital is the new way of broadcasting television and radio and will replace analogue services.  Digital offers more channels and services, at a higher quality, in addition to new interactive features
Digital Box A digital box is the device that converts digital TV signals into pictures and sound. The dish receives the digital television signals from the satellite, and sends them to the digital box. The box then converts the signals into pictures and sounds and sends them to the TV to display. (See STB)
Digital Satellite TV Digital TV received via a satellite dish.  The satellite dish picks up broadcast signals sent to it by the broadcasters, amplifies them, and then re-transmits them over a defined target area so that they can be received using a dish and suitable electronic receiving equipment.  There is a higher bandwidth available using satellites compared to terrestrial broadcasts through an aerial, giving you more channels and special features, e.g. enhanced interactive TV
Digital Video Effects Creates video effects such as squeeze-back (when picture is reduced) for sponsor promotion on live events.  See also squeeze-back
‘dish’ Printed DStv Guide sent to subscribers each month and offering a comprehensive breakdown of entertainment, schedules, programmes, competitions and more.  An Afrikaans version called ‘skottel’ is available for all Afrikaans speaking subscribers
Dolby® Digital A form of multi-channel digital sound, it provides efficient encoding and noise reduction for high-quality surround sound — technology used in movie theatres and upscale home theatre systems that enhances audio. Home theatre components with this technology work in conjunction with a "5.1-speaker" system (five speakers plus a low-frequency subwoofer) to produce true-to-life audio that draws the listener into the onscreen action
Downlink Signal path from the satellite to earth. The transmission of radio frequency signals (content/data/service) from a satellite to an earth station 
DStv Broadband DStv broadband (or DStv On Demand PC) is MultiChoice’s catch-up TV service, hosted at www.dstvbroadband.co.za available to all DStv Premium and Compact subscribers
DStv Channel Grid The DStv Channel Grid displays a list of all available channels in the DStv bouquet and is a quick way to check what’s showing on your favourite channel.  It’s also a great way to tune to a channel when you’re not sure what number that channel is
DStv Compact DStv Compact is an exciting new DStv bouquet to match your lifestyle and offers access to hundreds of programmes and thousands of stars across 35 channels.  DStv Compact is available for R219/ month
DStv Easy View DStv EasyView is an affordable DStv entry bouquet. The EasyView package includes a selection of news, general entertainment, religious, shopping channels and free-to-air channels, including radio stations and open weekends. Available from R210.00 per year, (R17.50 per month), it is the most affordable DStv package
DStv i-Plate The i-plate is displayed every time you change a channel or exit a menu.  If you require more information about a programme while the i-plate is displayed, press ‘i’ again for extended information
DStv Indian Two Indian bouquets ‘North Indian’ and ‘South Indian’, catering to different cultural preferences, provide authentic Indian entertainment channels
DStv On Demand DStv on Demand (or DStv on Demand TV) is MultiChoices’s catch-up TV service, available to DStv Premium customers with a Standard Decoder PVR
DStv Portuguese Discover the best in Portuguese entertainment with DStv’s Specialist Portuguese bouquet
DStv Premium DStv Premium combines the best entertainment programming available from across the globe with superior technological innovation to provide an unforgettable television viewing experience!  DStv Premium is available from R499/month
DStv Select With more than 20 channels, DStv Select provides a variety of the latest entertainment, music, news, sports, movies and documentaries and is available from Vodacom at R148.00 a month.  DStv Select 1 includes M-Net Series and Hallmark, while DStv Select 2 includes kykNET and MK
DStv Touch The DStv Touch menu is an easy way for subscribers to access 24x7 interactive services while watching DStv
DStv TV Guide This service is accessible by pressing the “TV Guide” button on your remote control.  For programme information across all the DStv channels plus a personal planner and search function, the TV Guide allows you to plan your viewing up to 8 days in advance, select themes and set reminders for programmes.
DStv XtraView XtraView is a cost effective and flexible solution allowing you to link two XtraView capable DStv decoders at a cost of a single subscription, plus an access fee of R80 per month.  XtraView allows you to increase the number of TV channels which can be viewed simultaneously in your home without having to pay an additional subscription.
Dubbed The process of recording or replacing voices, .i.e. translation & replacing of original voice (either that of a presenter or actor) in another language 
EIT Event Information Table: contains information about programmes (events) that are broadcast on service. This includes event name, start time and duration, descriptions, parental rating and content type
EN2 European Networks 2: interactive operating software for DSD’s (decoders). There are OKSL EN2 and non OKSL EN2. The OKSL EN2 is the version on which the DStv touch menu is available
EPG Electronic Program Guide. An interactive list of upcoming TV programming that can be transmitted along with a DTV program. On the DStv platform, the guide is available 8 days in advance, but on certain decoders, 2 days in advance
Encoder The encoder digitises analogue/uncompressed audio and video and combines signals the digital video, audio and data into one serial data stream
Encryption Encryption is the process of changing information to make it unreadable without a decoder. DStv uses a signal which scrambles the original transmitted material to protect subscription or pay per view services
Exclusive Content which is exclusive to a channel may only be shown on that channel
Exhibition run A term used to refer to a repeat that happens within a 24 hour period since the first show. An exhibition run does not count as a repeat 
FCC Final Control Centre.  The final broadcasting insertion point before transmission
FTA Free to Air.  Channels which are free to access and watch - no viewing card / smartcard required. SABC & e.tv are free-to-air platforms, and all channels are free to access and watch
FTTH Fibre to the Home
Footprint A geographic area towards which a satellite downlink antenna directs its signal; the coverage areas of the earth’s surface within which the signals of a specific satellite can be received
Frequency The rate at which a signal (e.g. electrical current) alternates. The standard unit of frequency is the hertz, abbreviated as Hz. If a signal completes one cycle per second, then the frequency is 1 Hz, etc. 
Full HD Informal way of referring to the highest HD resolution of 1080 horizontal lines (see HD Formats)
Genre Category. Generally referred to when grouping a number of channels with similar attributes e.g. Entertainment, Sports, News, etc. DStv groups its channels in the following genres:

  • Entertainment & Movies
  • Lifestyle & Culture
  • Sport
  • Documentary
  • Children
  • Music
  • Religion
  • News & Commerce

Plus
  • Specialist
  • DStv Touch
  • DStv Audio

 

GIS Geographic Information System
HD High Definition
HDMI High Definition Multimedia Interface. A high-quality digital connector suitable for high definition.  HDMI cables are the best way for connecting your products together, as they can carry both high-quality video and sound in just one cable. Similar to DVI and sometimes with HDCP, HDMI can digitally transmit uncompressed high-definition video and audio on the same cable, preserving picture and sound quality.
HDTV High Definition Television.  Generally refers to TV with at least twice the vertical and horizontal picture resolution of current digital and analogue TV systems.  This makes the picture at least four times as detailed and in 16:9 formats. Note that HDTV and DTV are not the same thing — HDTV is one format of DTV.
HD Formats Standard definition television pictures are made up of 576 horizontal lines refreshed at a rate of 20 times per second. The increased amount of picture information transmitted for HDTV means pictures are made up of more lines - i.e. there is a greater level of picture resolution. The accepted standards for HD picture resolution are currently 720p (720 progressive - 720 lines refreshed at 20 or 50 times per second), 1080i (1080 interlaced - 1080 lines refreshed at 20 times per second), or 1080p (1080 progressive - 1080 lines refreshed 24 or 20 times per second). High definition television uses both 1080 interlaced (1080i) and 1080 progressive (1080p) formats. Interlace splits the picture into two sets of alternate horizontal lines known as "fields" - 520 lines in the first field and the remaining 520 lines in the second field. Although the entire image is refreshed 20 times per second, fields are refreshed 50 times per second. So the interlaced format is good for fast moving programmes such as sport. Progressive is better for programmes which benefit from increased resolution (i.e. capturing an increased level of detail), e.g. nature programmes. A new standard, 1080p50 (1080 progressive - 1080 lines refreshed at 50 times per second), is available, but is not currently used for television broadcasts or Blu-ray because of the large bandwidth each would need. The latest generation of games consoles can output 1080p50, and to get the most out of these devices you need an "HD Ready 1080p" TV
HD Ready A definition of a minimum standard for HD televisions intended to reduce confusion for consumers when buying a TV. There is an official "HD Ready" logo to highlight TVs which are guaranteed to be suitable for HD broadcasts. An "HD Ready" screen will have: 1) A native resolution of at least 720 horizontal lines  2) A digital connection (HDMI or DVI), plus component  3) The ability to receive both 720p and 1080i formats of HD input signal 4) Copyright protection, as part of the HDMI or DVI connection
Head-end The location where television systems collect and distribute satellite programming. Under Multichoice, head-end implies the total value chain: encoding, multiplexing, scrambling, modulation, up-converter, HPA, transmit dish
High Definition The highest standard of television available and the greatest jump in television picture quality since the switch from black & white to colour television in the 1980s! High definition has up to five times the picture detail and more lifelike than the standard offering. Standard-definition TV broadcasts in the UK have 576 horizontal lines of pixels; whereas HDTV broadcasts have either 1080 or 720 lines (see HD formats). This gives a clearer, sharper picture with much more detail. You need an "HD Ready" TV to watch high definition (see HD Ready). HDTV also has better quality sound, and many HD programmes are broadcast with rich surround sound, for a completely immersive experience. 
IBS Integrated Business System
ICASA Independent Communications Authority of South Africa
ICR International contribution room.  Controlled area of feeds from various sources, either satellite or cable; used as a controlled environment for distribution of feed onto a local network within the broadcast services building, be it FCCs, studios or other required areas
IDTV Integrated digital television - a TV set with a built-in digital TV receiver. With IDTV, there is no need for a separate Set-top-Box to receive DTT
IPTV Internet Protocol TV
IS7 Intelsat 7 satellite
IS10 Intelsat 10 satellite
ISO International Standards Organization
ITV Interactive Television Describes a number of techniques that allow viewers to interact content as they view it, often by the use of remote control Infomercial
Interlaced Scanning The process of interlaced scanning divides the horizontal lines of pixels in a frame into a set of odd lines and a set of even lines. In 1/80th of a second, the odd lines will flash on the screen and in the next 1/80th of a second; the even lines will flash on the screen. In the space of 1/30th of a second, the entire frame has been shown on the screen in two separate flashes
i-Plate Short for information plate.  This is the bar on the bottom of the screen which appears when “i” is pressed on the remote control (see also DStv i-Plate)
LCD LCD is another kind of flat panel television. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) is a TV display that applies an electrical charge to a layer of liquid crystals trapped between two pieces of polarized glass so light can shine through in a specific pattern. The pattern is displayed as an image on screen
LNB Low Noise Block Converter: an electronic part of a satellite earth station (or dish) that is used to amplify the signal collected by the reflector and feedhorn of the dish.
Letterbox Letterbox is the term used when 16:9 content is viewed on a 4:3 screen. In order to display the widescreen content without distortion or missing parts of the picture, the television will place black bars at the top and bottom of the image
Local content Generally refers to content produced locally, and addresses themes based on local history, society and experience
Library content Content that has aired previously on a channel or bouquet
License period Period that a content provider may license their content to a broadcaster
Live Television Or “Live” refers to television broadcast in real time or on a short tape delay basis.  It is usually used in news or sport
MCA MultiChoice Africa
MIH Myriad International Holdings
MPEG The Moving Pictures Expert Group: develops standards for video and digital audio compression; it operates under the auspices of International Standards Organization (ISO). The MPEG standards are evolving, each designed for different purposes
MPEG 2 Compression rate which Multichoice uses in current decoders 
MPEG 4 Compression standard four times more efficient than MPEG 2
MUD Multiple unit dwelling
MUX Multiplex. A single broadcast frequency that contains a number of different digital TV or radio channels into the combined equivalent space of an entire analogue channel Market Segmentation
Mass Market is a general business term describing the largest group of consumers for a specified industry product. It is the opposite extreme of the term niche market
Mobile TV Mobile TV allows you to watch TV on your mobile phone.  DStv Mobile hopes to launch a digital video broadcast (DVB-H) product to subscribers allowing them to watch select DStv channels on their mobile phone.
Monitor A Monitor is simply a display device that is incapable of receiving digital broadcast programming without additional equipment.
Multichannel An environment where more than one channel is available. DStv would be considered to be providing a multichannel environment in South Africa, for example. 
MultiChoice A corporate organisation that owns the DStv brand
 
Multi-room Multi-room entertainment systems allow your audio and video signals (from a CD player, radio, DVD player etc) to be distributed round the house and played in different rooms. Each room is able to play its own selection or, alternatively, they can be set to play the same thing (often called a "party mode")
Must Carry Channels that have to be carried by the broadcaster, e.g. the regulator may stipulate that the broadcaster has to carry the local FTA (free to air) channels.  
NIT Network Information Table: Contain tuning parameters of transponders so that subscriber does not need to retune when surfing channels located in different transponders
NTSC National Television Standards Committee.  The broadcast standard used for analogue TV in the USA, Canada, Mexico and Japan
Niche Market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focusing on; therefore the market niche defines the specific product features aimed at satisfying specific market needs, as well as the price range, production quality and the is intending to impact
On-air promo A television commercial produced for playing in between television programmes. DStv uses on-air promos for promoting programming highlights across different channels
Over the Air Over-the-Air (OTA) refers to the transmission and reception of information in a wireless communication system
PAL Phase Alternating Line.  A video signal standard used in South Africa, the UK and most of Europe.
PG Parental Guidance.  A recommendation for parents to be available to answer questions young viewers may have about certain content
PPV Pay per View offers a system by which a television audience can purchase events to view on TV-monitors via private telecast of that event to their homes. The broadcaster shows the event at the same time to everyone ordering it, as opposed to video-on-demand (VoD) systems, which allow viewers to see the event at any time
PVR Personal Video Recorder. Hardware (see STB) capable of digitally recording and playing back programming.  The DStv PVR allows users to view up to two channels and record a third at the same time.  Recording memory allows for up to 80 hrs of recordings
Parental Control The parental control function included in all models of DStv decoders allows parents to decide which channels and programmes or recordings are suitable for their family using a PIN password
Parental Rating A rating allocated to a programme by broadcasters.  This gives an indication as to which programmes are suitable for which age groups and allows parents to lock access to certain programmes they deem unsuitable for their family. (see Parental Control)
Pay TV Pay television refers to subscription-based television services, usually   provided by both analogue and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods. Africa’s largest pay-television product DStv is a digital satellite service operating in 48 countries
Pilot This refers to the first programme of a series and is sometimes used to test an audience’s reaction to the forthcoming series or a proposed programme.
Pixel Pixel is actually two words combined - "Picture" and "Element." Pixels are tiny samples of video information, the "little squares" that "add up" to an entire picture. A pixel is the smallest area of a television picture capable of being sampled and transmitted through a system, and displayed on a monitor
Pixellation Used to describe the effect where the picture, or part of the picture, breaks down into small squares
Plasma TV A Plasma Display Panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays (32 inches or larger). Plasma refers to one kind of flat panel television. With a plasma display, a mixture of gases is trapped between two pieces of glass and an electrical charge is applied to the gases. This causes certain elements in the mixture to light up. The light passes through the glass in a specific pattern. That pattern forms an image on the screen.  Plasma displays should not be confused with LCD displays, another lightweight "flatscreen" display using different technology
Platform A term encompassing the various ways in which a home can receive television. The six platforms are: analogue terrestrial, analogue satellite, digital terrestrial (or DTT), analogue cable, digital satellite or digital cable. 
Premiere The first time a programme is shown on a particular channel it is called a premiere
Prime Time This is usually the time of day when most viewers are tuned to the channel.  Prime Time is usually between 18:00 and 21:00
Progressive Scan A way to scan vertical lines onto a TV picture by scanning all the lines consecutively (progressively) i.e. the first line, followed by the second, the third, the fourth, and so on, are placed on the screen in order all within 1/30th of a second. Progressive scan produces a higher quality picture than interlace scan. All flat panel and many digital projection televisions are progressive scan, so they display progressive scan images more clearly compared to interlaced images
PVR Access Charge An additional charge is levied on the PVR to access additional channels without another subscription
Rain fade The loss of signal from the satellite during heavy rain or a storm
Ratings The rating of a television programme is the percentage of households watching a particular program against the total number of television households in the country
Reboot A hard reset after a failure.  On occasion it may be necessary to switch the power to your decoder off for a few seconds.  When the power is restored, the decoder reboots and the software refreshes
Repeat Programmes may be shown again in different time slots to allow catch-up viewing or to suit different audience viewing preferences
Resolution The amount of detail that can be seen in a broadcast image. For television, resolution is measured in horizontal lines displayed (commonly 480, 720, or 1080)
Satellite Dish The device that collects the television broadcast from the satellite and transmits it (via the LNB) to the digital box and the TV.  Satellite dishes are available in different sizes.  As the required size of the dish varies from country to country and region to region, it is advisable to check with local agents and installers for the correct installation specification
RF Radio Frequency
SD Standard Definition refers to television systems that have a resolution that meets standards but not considered either enhanced definition or High Definition (HD). The term is usually used in reference to digital television (DTV) in particular when broadcasting at the same (or similar) resolution as analogue systems
STB Set Top Box.  A stand-alone device that receives and decodes programming so that it may be displayed on a television. Set-top boxes may be used to receive broadcast, cable, and satellite programming
SUD Single unit dwelling
Satellite Television Satellite television is delivered by means of communications satellite and received by a satellite dish and set-top box (STB). In many areas of the world it provides a wide range of channels and services, often to areas that are not serviced by terrestrial or cable providers
Schedule A listing of the time of day and dates a programme is planned to air
Series A programme which consists of a minimum of 13 episodes and runs over a season (usually 13 weeks)
Severity One A process which is initiated when a severe service outage is encountered. The purpose of a severity one is to maintain focus on resolving the service outage as quickly as possible, with the least impact to the customer
Software Download Digital boxes occasionally need updated software to provide the latest services and features. This can be performed as an "over-the-air" software download, i.e. the software is automatically downloaded to the digital box via satellite dish
Solar Outage Solar outages occur when a satellite dish is looking at a satellite, and the sun passes behind the satellite and within the field of view of the dish antenna.  Solar outages occur during the spring and fall as the sun moves up and down the sky during the equinox.  The outages only last a few minutes for a few days a year
Spectrum A range of electromagnetic radio frequencies used in the transmission of radio, data, and video
Spot Beam A satellite antenna designed to direct all of the satellite’s power to a relatively compact (or small) area on earth. E.g. the Nigerian Spotbeam
Squeeze-back  A squeeze-back refers to the full screen picture being reduced in size so that advertising or notices can appear alongside and/or below the picture
Strip Refers to a TV programme aired five days a week, mainly Monday - Friday
Subtitles One or more lines of text, as a translation of dialogue in a foreign language, appearing usually at the bottom of a film or video image
Surround sound Audio transmitted through four or more speakers placed around the room, rather than just two stereo speakers on the TV set. Programmes with surround sound can be more atmospheric and many high definition programmes are filmed with surround sound as well, but you'll need a surround sound system (e.g. a home cinema system) to enjoy the full effect
Target Audience The audience most desired by advertisers in terms of potential product/service usage and revenue potential
Television Households An estimate of the number of households that have one or more television sets
Terrestrial Broadcasting A broadcast signal transmitted over-the-air to an antenna but not using satellite
Timeshifting Recording a programme on a VCR or PVR and watching them after the scheduled broadcast start time
Transponder A receiver-transmitter combination that receives a signal on one frequency and transmits on another frequency.  A radio frequency path through a satellite with a specific bandwidth, uplink/downlink frequency and beam
Transport Stream A digital stream consisting of video, audio and data information
TV Guide see DStv TV Guide
Twin Feed Refers to LNB (see LNB) configuration used in dual view installation
UHF Ultra High Frequency. This is the part of the radio spectrum from 300 to 3000 megahertz, which includes TV channels 14-69. After the DTV transition, UHF TV will be changed to 470 to 698 MHz, which includes channels 14-51.
Upconvert A process by which a digital, high-definition television takes a lower-definition picture and converts it into a higher-definition picture. This may be done by doubling each line as it is drawn on the screen, or by using advanced algorithms to interpolate the data between each lower-resolution line, filling in the missing image
Uplink Signal path from the earth to the satellite. An act of moving signal (content/data/service) from earth to satellite
VCR Video Cassette Recorder
VHF Very High Frequency. This is the part of the radio spectrum from 30 to 300 megahertz, which includes TV Channels 2-13, and the FM broadcast band
VOD Video-on-Demand - a service that allows you to stream or download selected TV programmes to watch when you want, rather than be tied to when they are broadcast. Many VOD services allow you to stream or download from a library of old films and TV programmes, and episodes from programmes in their current series usually become available after each episode has first been broadcast.  (See also DStv on Demand)
W4 Eutelsat W4 satellite
Watershed The watershed is the time in the evening after which programmes with adult content might be shown. This can include nudity, sexual intercourse, strong language, strong drug references and graphic violence. The watershed in South Africa is from 8pm but may differ from country to country outside of South Africa
Widescreen A term used generally to describe an aspect ratio wider than 4:3. For television, this refers to the 16 x 9 aspect ratio
XtraView See DStv XtraView